4b – Prophet Muhammad

“Whoever saw him for the first time was awed by him, and whoever mingled with him and got to know him loved him.” Thus was the Prophet Muhammad described by one of his close companions. Even today, some 1,400 years later, one who comes to know of the Prophet cannot fail to be impressed by this man who, from humble beginnings and in the face of persecution, brought about such a profound change in the world. Today, over a billion people, spanning scores of nationalities, colors and languages, consider themselves followers of his religion, and uphold the system of spiritual devotion and morals taught by him. All this is the fruit of the simple message that was the core of his preaching, “There is no god but God.” Surely, everyone ought to be acquainted with his life and teachings.

Birth and Early Youth

Allah’s final prophet and messenger, Muhammad, was born in the sixth century after Christ (ca. 570 C.E.) in the Arabian city of Makkah, among the Arab tribe of Quraysh. The Arabs as a whole trace their bloodline to Abraham’s son Ishmael. Quraysh was an especially prestigious tribe, for they were in charge of the holy sanctuary of the Ka`bah, which had been built by Abraham and Ishmael. However, the pure monotheism of Abraham had by now degenerated into idolatry. People from all over Arabia would still make pilgrimage to the Ka`bah, but for idolatrous worship.

Muhammad’s father, `Abdullah, had died before he was born, and his mother, Aaminah, died when he was just six years old. His grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib took care of him for the next two years. When `Abdul-Muttalib, too, died, the eight-year old Muhammad passed into the custody of his paternal uncle, Abu Talib. He thus grew up as an orphan. The Makkan society was not particularly literate, and he did not receive an education. In his early youth, he worked as a shepherd, and later became an employee of a prosperous trader-woman named Khadijah. The young Muhammad came to earn a reputation for honesty and trustworthiness, and was nicknamed Al-Amin (The Trustworthy) by his people. The wealthy Khadijah was so impressed by him that she asked to marry him. He accepted, although she was 40 years old and so 15 years his senior. The marriage lasted twenty-five years, until Khadijah’s death, and he did not marry any other women during this time. Read more

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3b – The Qur'an

The Qur’an is the speech of Allah, sent down upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him and his Household), conveyed to us by mass-transmission, the very recitation of it constitutes worship, and the smallest surah of it constitutes a challenge. (see: Q[9:6, 26:192-5, …])

Preservation of the Qur’an
The Prophet memorized the Qur’an as he received it, as did many of his companions, and it was also written down during his lifetime. The tradition of memorizing the entire Qur’an has continued in every generation, such that the Qur’an has been preserved through dual means: through writing as well as orally. Every year, during the recommended extra night prayers in the Islamic month of Ramadan, it is customary for the Huffaz (those who have memorized the Qur’an) to complete recitation of the entire Qur’an from memory. This massive coordination of human effort over history, which has today continued and extended further into new forms of media, is the illustration of Allah’s having undertaken the Qur’an’s preservation.
“Verily, it is We who have revealed the Reminder (i.e. the Qur’an), and it is We who shall guard it.” [Qur’an, 15:9] Read more

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