A Case of Framing

We know that the Prophet, along with many of the early Muslims, emigrated from Makkah to Madinah to escape persecution. The early phases of life in Madinah were difficult, due to the pressure of the large influx of émigrés on the city’s economy (not to mention the military aggression which the Makkan polytheists began against Madinah). Food was sometimes scarce, and typically comprised barley flour and dates. Wheat flour was a rare commodity, only occasionally being brought in, in small quantities, from the Levant. Rifa`ah, one of the Companions, once obtained a quantity of this wheat flour, and stashed it in a room of his house, with some weapons placed over it. A man – outwardly a Muslim, but actually a hypocrite – from the family of Banu Ubayriq (he was named Bashir, or Tu`mah, according to different narrations) came to know of this, and that night stole the flour as well as the weapons. The following day, Rifa`ah discovered that the items were gone, and publicized the unfortunate news. Some people told him that they had seen smoke emanating from the house of Banu Ubayriq the previous night, and that it was likely that they were the culprits and had been cooking their ill-gotten acquisition. When the thief from Banu Ubayriq came to know of these developments, he started rumors that Labid ibn Sahl was actually the thief. Labid, however, was a trustworthy man, and so these rumors did not gain currency, and hence – according to some of the narrations – it appears that the thief then implemented a more devious strategy of framing someone else. He craftily laid a trail of flour from the house of Rifa`ah to the house of a Jew, and also deposited the stolen weapons with the same unsuspecting man, under the pretext of asking him to hold onto them for safekeeping. Upon discovering the trail of flour, people became suspicious of the Jew, and when he was found to have the stolen weapons in his house, their suspicion against him increased, despite his earnest remonstrations that the weapons had been entrusted to him by Ibn Ubayriq. Read more

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Jesus' Second Coming





Qur’anic Evidence


Verification of the Descent of Jesus, son of Mary (peace be upon them both)

  1. Evidence From The Qur’an

  1. Affirming Verses
    1. And he [Jesus] shall speak to mankind in the cradle and in middle age, and [he shall be] among the righteous.” Q[3:46]
    2. The wording here is significant:

      • Speaking in middle-age is not usually extraordinary in itself, unlike speaking in the cradle which is a miracle. The fact that the verse makes specific mention of his speaking in middle age (and that it is also mentioned in Q[5:110] as a favor to be recalled on the Day of Judgment) suggests that it carries some significance. Certainly, for someone to disappear from this world, remain for thousands of years in a realm wherein he does not age, and then return to continue his life and subsequently speak in middle age, is something warranting special mention.
      • He was sent to the Children of Israel (Q[3:49]), but this verse says he will speak to mankind, without further specification.
      • The verse says he will speak to them in middle age. Yet, he was only 33 or 34 years old when he was lifted up to the heavens [Reported by Ibn Katheer from Hasan al-Basri, and Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib; Ibn Abi al-Dunya has attributed this directly to the Prophet. The same age is stated by Zayd ibn Aslam, Ibn Zayd and others of the Tabi`in, and was concluded to be the strongest view by the prominent exegetes al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir], and that is not yet middle-aged (kahl).

      These points, then, are an indication of the fact that Jesus has not died, and will return to this earth toward the end of the world, thereby speaking to mankind at large in his old age. The same interpretation has been reported by the exegete Ibn Jarir al-Tabari from Ibn Zayd

    3. And there is not any of the People of the Book except that he must believe in him before his death, on the Day of Resurrection he shall be a witness over them.” Q[4:159]
    4. The following are reasons for taking “his death” to refer to Jesus’ death, rather than the death of each individual of the People of the Book:

      • Context of the verse; the preceding verses are talking about Allah’s foiling of the attempt to kill Jesus (peace be upon him).
      • Taking the first pronoun (‘him’) to refer to Jesus, but the second one (‘his’) to refer to a person of the book implies ‘dispersal of pronouns’ (tashtit al-dama‘ir), which is undesirable in the Arabic language. Taking both pronouns as referring to Jesus (peace be upon him) is, in contrast, the most natural interpretation, as stated by Abu Hayyan, the linguist, in his Tafsir al-Bahr al-Muhit.
      • The verse has been explained in this way by 2 prominent Companions: Ibn `Abbas, the renowned exegete [as narrated by al-Hakim, Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, `Abd ibn Humayd, Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Faryabi and others], and Abu Hurayrah [Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Abi Shaybah, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn Sa`d], as well as by a number of the Tabi`in : Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Abu Malik, Hasan al-Basri [as narrated by al-Tabari].
      • The validity of this interpretation is confirmed in mutawatir ahadith (discussed further in Section B).
    5. And surely he (Jesus) is a sign of the Hour, so do not doubt concerning it.“Q[43:61]
    • Explained thus in a hadith attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), via Ibn `Abbas, as in Sahih ibn Hibban. The same interpretation is given by numerous Sahabah and Tabi`in, including Ibn `Abbas, Abu Malik, Hasan al-Basri, Mujahid, Qatadah, Suddi, Dahhak and Ibn Zayd, as recorded by al-Tabari. This was also regarded as the most natural explanation by the exegete and linguist Abu Hayyan, and was the interpretation selected by virtually every other exegete of renown, such as al-Zamakhshari, al-Razi, al-Baghawi, al-Jalal al-Muhalli, Ibn Katheer, and al-Alusi.
    • Indicated by context of the verse; the preceding verses talk about Jesus (peace be upon him).
    • Anything else gives for an awkward structure or forced interpretation.

II. Dispellation of Confusions

  1. When Allah said, ‘O Jesus! I shall mutawaffika (gather you up / cause you to die), and raise you up to Me, and purify you from those who disbelieve, . . .” Q[3:55]
  2. Bukhari reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “mutawaffika – cause you to die.”

    • Bukhari reported this without an isnad, and it is not sahih. Bukhari’s mu`allaqat (‘hanging’ reports cited without an isnad) were not subjected to his criteria of the highest authenticity. Hafiz Ibn Hajar painstakingly traced the chains of narration of the mu`allaqat in a 5 volume work Taghliq al-Ta`liq. Some of the mu`allaqat are authentic, others are not, and the one in question is not. It is narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim through his isnad: Mu`awiyah [ibn Salih], from `Ali ibn Abi Talhah, from Ibn `Abbas. `Ali ibn Abi Talhah al-Hashimi (d. 143 H) did not meet Ibn `Abbas or any others of the Sahabah, aside from the fact that his reliability is disputed.
    • In fact, “tawaffa” (the verb of “mutawaffika”) is also used in the Qur’an with the meaning of “to cause to sleep,” [Q[6:60] and Q[39:42]). This is the meaning which has been selected by the majority of exegetes, as cited by Hafiz Ibn Kathir [Mukhtasar Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol I, p. 286]. There may be support for this view also in the Biblical accounts which speak of Jesus (peace be upon him) and the disciples going to the Mount of Olives shortly before the alleged trial and crucifixion, and the disciples being overcome by sleep. [Matt 26, Luke 22] It is conceivable that Jesus, too, was made to sleep, and then raised up in this state, such that someone else was then crucified in his place.
    • Even if the narration attributed to Ibn `Abbas were authentic, the word “wa” (“and”) does not carry connotations of temporal succession. Hence, it is conceivable that the dying referred to is that which will occur after his return.
    • Even if Jeus (peace be upon him) had died, this would not rule out his returning to the earth.

    Have you not seen those who came out of their homes in thousands, fearing death? Allah said to them, ‘Die!’ and then He brought them to life.” Q[2:243]

    Or, like he who passed by a city while it was lying in ruin; he said, ‘How will Allah give life to this after its death?’ Then, Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, and then brought him to life.” Q [2:259]

    And I give life to the dead, by Allah’s leave.” Q[3:49]

  3. We have not given immortality to any mortal before you.” Q[21:34]
  4. This is irrelevant here, for immortality (al-khuld) means to remain in a place forever, never leaving it.

B. Evidence From The Sunnah

Ahadith can be classified into two categories: ahad and mutawatir. Ahad narrations are those which are narrated only by one person, or a couple of people, in one or more generations (since a chain is only as strong as its weakest link), from the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his Household) until ahadith were systematically compiled into books. If uncorroborated by other evidence, an ahad narration typically does not convey certain knowledge, since there is a possibility that a mistake or lie was introduced by a narrator somewhere in the chain. Admittedly, if the isnad (chain of narration) of the ahad hadith is found to be reliable or authentic (sahih) , then the probability of error becomes small, even negligible.

A mutawatir narration, on the other hand, is one which is narrated by ‘a multitude’ in each generation, i.e. by numerous people in each generation. Multiple chains of transmission corroborate one another, and when they reach a certain threshold (which is the case for a mutawatir hadith), they convey absolute certainty that the contents of the hadith in question indeed trace back reliably to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). This is because it is not conceivable for so many people in each generation all to make a mistake, or all to forget in the same way, or all to collude to lie.

The ahadith about the descent of the Messiah, Jesus, Son of Mary (peace be upon them both) at the end of time are mutawatir. They have been narrated from 27 or 28 of the Sahabah from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his Household). Shaykh `Abdullah al-Ghumari has painstakingly traced the names of these Sahabah, as well as the names of the Tabi`in who narrated the ahadith in question from them, and so on and so on, until the 6th generation after the Prophet, in which the books of hadith were compiled. He notes that ahadith on this subject have been recorded by

[See: Ghumari, `Aqidat Ahl al-Islam fi Nuzul `Isa `alayhis-salam, pp. 7-11]

One need only open any of the common books of hadith, or do a search on any of the searcheable databases, to realize the dissemination of these ahadith. For example, a topic-based search on Sakhr’s “Mawsu`at al-Hadith al-Sharif” CD turns up 61 related ahadith in the 9 books covered. These are narrated from 12 different initial narrators. 15 of these hadith are in Bukhari and/or Muslim.

Among the experts in Islamic sciences, who have specifically referred to these ahadith being mutawatir, are the following:

We may also note that the belief in the Descent of Jesus, son of Mary, at the End of Time has been held since the time of the Sahabah, and moreover included by numerous scholars in their statements, treatises and expositions of Islamic doctrine. Shaykh al-Ghumari [op. cit. pp 16-30, and also in Iqamat al-Burhan `ala Nuzul `Isa fi Akhir al-Zaman, 110-124] once again (may Allah reward him well), has diligently compiled a list of individuals from the generations of the Sahabah and onwards who stated or documented this belief. Among the scholars who documented the belief, and whose treatise has been unanimously approved by Muslim scholars of doctrine (with the exception of a handful of points, this one not being among them) was Imam Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi (d. 321 H). The belief is shared not only by the common Sunni schools of doctrine (Ash`aris, Maturidis, Hanbalis, Zahiris) but also by the Shi`ites. It is also known that many scholars from the above schools do not include an item as a point of doctrine unless the evidence for it is compelling, i.e. mutawatir.

The ahadith about the emergence of the Charlatan, the False Messiah, are similarly mutawatir. One who peruses Hafiz Ibn Kathir’s “Al-Nihayah,” will be fully convinced of this, for well over fifty pages of the book [pp. 92-149] are full of only a selection (almost 100) of these narrations.

Is the False Messiah mentioned in the Qur’an? Certainly, he is not mentioned directly, and there could be various reasons for this. Perhaps it is because the mention (even though inexplicit) of the return of the True Messiah, who will slay the charlatan, removes the need to mention the Dajjal. Or, perhaps the omission is a subtle allusion to Dajjal’s insignificance before Allah. Or, perhaps he is mentioned indirectly, in Q[40:57], as opined by al-Baghawi. Of course, it is not necessary for every detail of religious teaching to be mentioned in the Qur’an, nor even to be alluded to. The sunnah is the counterpart of the Qur’an, reinforcing, clarifying, expounding, specifying, detailing and supplementing the information in the Qur’an. Religious teaching gleaned from the authentic ahadith is just as authoritative as that from the Qur’an, especially in the case of mutawatir ahadith.

May Allah grant us the courage to learn about and implement the sunnah of our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his Household) in all aspects of our lives.

And in closing, we praise Allah, Sustainer of the Universe.


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Imam Muslim on The Importance of Hadith Verification


The Importance of Hadith Verification
From Muslim’s Introduction to his Sahih

NOTE: This text is copyright.

Know – may Allah have mercy upon you – that what is obligatory upon every individual who is familiar with discrimination between the authentic among narrations and the inferior [thereof], [as well as between] the reliable reporters thereof from the incriminated ones, is that he narrate from [the body of hadith] only that [material] for which he knows that the source is authentic and its reporters are [of] blameless [character]. He should avoid those [narrations] which are [related] from incriminated people, and [from] obstinate people of innovation.

The evidence that what we have stated is binding rather than anything different is the words of Allah – may His mention be glorified – (translated), “O you who believe! If a transgressor comes to you with information then verify [its truth], in case you smite a people out of ignorance, and then [later] become full of regret over what you have done.” And He said – glorified be his praise – (translated), “. . . from among those whom you approve as witnesses.” And He, the Mighty, the Majestic, said, (translated), “And establish in testimony two upright [men] from among you.” So, He has indicated, through these verses which we have mentioned, that the report of a transgressor is disreputable and unacceptable, and that the testimony of a non-upright individual is inadmissible. Although the import of a report differs from that of a testimony in some respects, they correspond in most of their features, for the report of a transgressor is not acceptable before the people of knowledge, just as his testimony is inadmissible according to all of them. Read more

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Mutawatir and Ahad Hadiths

Authority of Ahad and Mutawatir Hadith

A mutawatir narration is one which is:

narrated by a multitude of narrators
their numbers being such that experience / common sense rules out the possibility of their all having colluded to lie, or of their all having made the same mistake or fabrication by coincidence
with such numbers being present in each generation (level) of the chain of narration
the chain ending with something which was directly sensed (e.g. seen, heard) by the initial narrator (as opposed to something s/he concluded or hypothesized).
[see: Sharh Sharh Nukhbat al-Fikr, by `Ali al-Qari, (being a commentary on Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani’s summary text and commentary), pp. 161 ff.]

We encounter this type of narration often in the mundane aspects of our lives. It is by such narrations that we have come to know about distant lands which we have never visited, and similarly about events and people in the past, yet because of the certainty conveyed by these narrations, we do not doubt the existence of these entities. For example, we know about the tyranny of certain world leaders of our day, the poverty of Haiti, and the fact that there is a US-led war going on in `Iraq, because the numerous, abundant reports we have heard about these things have served to corroborate one another to the extent that we have become convinced without doubt that these are incontrovertible facts. Read more

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Ibn Hazm on Authority of the Sunnah

The Authority of the Sunnah

selections from

Al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam

vol I, pp. 96-108, Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, Beirut, 2nd ed., 1983/1402.

by Imam `Ali Ibn Hazm (d. 456 H)

“Since we have clarified [in the previous section] that the Qur’an is the source of reference for laws, we looked into it, and found therein the obligation of obedience to what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) has ordered us, and we found [Allah] the Mighty, the Majestic therein describing His messenger (peace and blessings be upon him), [translated], “He does not speak of his own desire. It is only an inspiration with which he is inspired.” Q[53:3-4] Thus, it is proved for us thereby that inspiration from Allah, the Mighty the Majestic, to His Messenger, can be divided into two categories: one of them [being] recited inspiration compiled in a miraculous form, which is the Qur’an, and the second [being] narrated inspiration, neither compiled [into a single book] nor of miraculous composition, and that is the narrations which have come from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), his being the explainer on behalf of Allah, the Mighty the Majestic. Allah, the Exalted, says, [translated], “…in order that you may explain to people what has been sent down to them.” Q[16:44] We found [Allah] the Exalted obligating obedience to this second category as He obliged obedience to the first category, without any difference, for [Allah] the Exalted, has said, [translated], “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger.” Q[5:92 and others] Read more

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